Object: Wedding Hat and Sash

Accession: E/2015/02/115

Name: Wedding Hat and Sash

Location: China

Materials: Ribbon, Paper, and Thread

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(E/2015/02/115 in the Sam Noble Museum Ethnology Collection)

This week’s object comes all the way from China. The hat and sash were used in wedding ceremonies. The wedding hat is a cone that resembles a dunce cap with a gold braid around the bottom and up the front. The sash is a waist belt. A red tunic was most likely worn under the sash since red represents good luck. From the Qin (221-206 BC) to the Qing (1644- 1911 AD) Dynasty China practiced feudalism and the act of marriage was important to the overall function of the society. Marriage for men meant the survival of his family lineage and for the women, it meant they were being adopted into a new family effectively becoming a guest in her own family’s home. [1]

The ritual is extensive and is often referred to as the Three Letters and the Six Etiquettes. The three letters are the betrothal letter, the gift letter, and the wedding letter which is used when the groom meets the bride at her home. The six etiquettes are as follows:


In those days parents would arrange a marriage between the couple and often times the couple would not meet each other until the wedding day. The groom’s parents would send over a matchmaker, often a woman, to the potential brides home in order to propose. If the proposal was successful the matchmaker would be rewarded with gifts from the families in order to show their gratitude.

Birthday Matching:

Using the bride’s full name and birthdate the groom’s family would ask a fortune teller to see if the match would make a prosperous marriage. The fortune teller would use Suan Ming (Chinese fortune telling) and they would refer to the Chinese zodiac in order to tell their future.

Presenting Betrothal gifts:

If the match was good the groom’s parents would take gifts to the bride’s family home and the process would be allowed to continue. The matchmaker would present the gifts along with the betrothal letter.

Presenting wedding gifts:

Here the bride’s family would receive a lavish array of gifts from the groom’s family like food. This was used to show off the wealth of the family and ensure the bride’s family that she would be well taken care of.

Selecting the Wedding Date:

Just as the name suggests this step is for choosing the wedding date. The groom’s family would return to the fortune teller who would pick the date according to the Tung Shing, which is a Chinese divination guide made up of the lunar calendar.

Wedding ceremony:


A wedding procession featuring the bride in a sedan 

It is finally the wedding day and the groom would walk with his party (usually a procession including a young child to symbolize future sons). Firecrackers and drums were used to ward off evil spirits during the move from his to her house. Her family would have sent over the dowry a day before and it would be on display in the groom’s family home. The dowry represented her family’s wealth and status. Once reaching her house the friends of the bride would make the groom perform trick and stunts in order to test his worthiness. After they were presented with money in red envelopes he was then allowed to enter the home. During this time the bride would be dressed in red with her face covered by a red shall. She would cry with her mother (to show her reluctance to leave) and then carried outside to the sedan to meet her husband. The bride’s feet were never to touch the ground during the procession back to the groom’s home. Once at the groom’s home, a red mat would be placed in front of the sedan and she would step onto it. She would then step over a flame in order to ward off evil spirits. They would be lead along in a festive manner and the groom would kowtow three times to give thanks to his family, heaven, and his spouse. [1]

The actual ceremony was quite simple. The bride and groom would stand at the family altar, give thanks to heaven and earth, the family ancestors, and the kitchen god, Tsao Chun. [2]

Then tea, either served with two lotus seeds or two red dates in each cup would be served to the groom’s parents. Then the bride and groom would bow to each other. The couple is then led to the bridal chamber where they would sit on the bed. They were given two goblets linked by a red thread and made to each take a sip and then exchange cups and finish the rest. The goblets were often filled with wine and honey.

While the couple is in the bridal chamber the groom’s family would treat all of the guests to a feast. The more lavish the display the better. Leftovers showed the wealth of the family and the type of food served had deep meanings. A whole fish would be served because the Chinese word for fish, yu, meant plenty and a lotus seed desert would be served to symbolize a wish for many children. [2]

The day after the wedding the bride was formally introduced to the groom’s family and she would pour them all tea starting from the parents, then from the oldest to youngest. When accepted by the family she would be given a title based on her husband’s place in the family. On the third day, the couple would return to the bride’s family where she would be considered a guest since she is officially a part of the groom’s family.

As you can tell the ancient Chinese rituals are extensive and if anything went wrong the match would not be able to continue. Today the wedding ceremonies in China have elements from both Western and Ancient wedding ceremonies.

A short video on the Three Letters and the Six Etiquettes:


((Caitlyn Jones))


Work Cited:

  1. “Ancient Chinese Marriage Custom.” Ancient Chinese Marriage Customs, Traditional Wedding Ceremony, Groom & Bride. Accessed December 06, 2017. https://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/social_customs/marriage/.
  2. “Ancient Chinese Wedding Traditions.” Theknot.com. Accessed December 06, 2017. https://www.theknot.com/content/ancient-chinese-wedding-traditions.


Additional Reading:

Smith, Richard J. “”Knowing Fate”: Divination in Late Imperial China.” Journal of Chinese Studies 3, no. 2 (1986): 153-90. http://www.jstor.org/stable/44288022.

Object: Bronze dicast ballot

Accession Number: C-1956-13-001

Object: Replica, Bronze dicast ballot with pierced hub

Culture: Greek

Location: Athens, Greece

Date: 4th century B.C.

Materials: Bronze

This artifact takes us back to the Hellenistic days of Greece, sometime around the 4th century. It is a bronze replica of an original dicast ballot found in the excavations of the Agora in Athens by the American School of Classical Studies at Athen.  “Psephos Demosia” is inscribed on it and translates to “public ballot”.  As one might assume, these ballots were used by jurors to vote in civic court for anything from laws to criminal trials. Because there were usually two hundred or more jurors, these dicast ballots allowed for a more efficient and private vote. Before the ballot, pebbles were used. Jurors would drop pebbles into either the prosecution’s vase or the defense’s vase. And before pebbles, jurors wrote the name of the party on a broken pottery fragment.  However, spectators could clearly see how the jurors voted.

In this new method, jurors would be handed two ballots, one with a hollow center and one with a solid center. The hollow ballot represented a vote for the prosecution and the solid center was a vote for the defense. The juror was to hold their fingers over the axle so others couldn’t see which ballot was which. Yet the jurors, themselves, could still tell the difference between the ballots because of the axle.   When it came time to vote, they would approach two jars, one made of bronze and the other of wood. Instead of being for each party, the bronze jar would represent the vote to count and the wooden jar would be for the other ballot that you didn’t want to count.  For example, a juror wanting to vote for the prosecution would drop a hollow ballot into the bronze jar for his vote and the solid ballot into the wooden jar to throw away the defense vote. The wooden jar also served as a way to return the unused ballot while keeping others from knowing how you voted. The voting jars had slits in them that only allowed one ballot inserted at a time. This would prevent jurors from dropping both ballots into a single jar, thus throwing out their vote. This method of voting worked for the Ancient Greek jurors until they started using paper.


I was surprised to find how big the ballot bronze actually was. I had pictured it being the size of a quarter, based off the pictures I saw during my research.  However, the ballots are big enough to hold one in each hand with your thumb and pointer finger covering the hollow or solid axle. It was important to hold like this so other jurors couldn’t see which way you were voting.


(( Calen Cline ))

Object: Roman Gravestone

Accession: C/2000/01/001



C/2000/01/001 in the holdings of Sam Noble Museum


Name: Roman Altar Stone

Culture: Roman

Material: Marble

This week’s object is a Roman Grave marker currently in the Classic’s collection. It is 29.5” H x17”W x 12”D with a Latin inscription covering the front. The inscription though faded and chipped says,

To the shades of the departed (or) For/to the god Mercury


Lived 23 years

4 months 3 days

L. Plutius


Made this for his most sweet (dear) wife

Like other Roman gravestones, this may have been colored red although the color has faded with time. The gravestone and the body were most likely placed outside the city as it can be deduced from the inscription that the Romans were still practicing paganism and the deceased were only buried in the cities near churches when Christianity took hold of the area. The tombstone was most likely found in the “City of the Dead” or what is known as the catacombs. [1]


Roman Mausoleum under Saint Peter’s Basilica

Since this is a grave marker it is safe to assume that the woman received the full Roman funerary rites since the Romans believed that the spirit could not move on and cross the River Styx until all of these rites were performed. The Roman funeral marked a transition from life to death in Roman culture and it was important that all of them be performed so the spirit would not haunt the living. Much of the information we have on Roman funerary rituals comes from combining information from various first-hand accounts as the rituals were either never formally written or the documents have been lost. [2]

Ancient Roman funerary rituals were very different from what we practice today. The process consists of five parts: the procession, cremation/burial, eulogy, feast, and commemoration. Each one ensuring that the spirit could move on into the next life.

The Procession:

While funerals today are typically restricted to the friends and family of the deceased the Romans paraded their dead from their homes to the necropolis or “City of the Dead” in front of the city. Anyone not a part of the city was welcome to watch and the procession served as entertainment. The more lavish the parade the better. Wealthy families would hire professional grievers and actors who wore death masks to mimic the family’s ancestors. These processions essentially showed the social status of the family and remind everyone of their importance in the city. The body would be carried on a beir, a bed like tray for all to see. [2,3]


The Romans took care of the body in two ways. They either cremated the body and gathered the ashes into an urn or they buried the body in a sarcophagus.  Once the body was interred it was believed that the spirit would be able to cross the River Styx.


If the person was of importance to the society or within the family, someone would give a eulogy. For elite families the eulogies were given in public at the forum building. A well-known eulogy is one given by Julius Caesar for his aunt called Laudiatio Juliae Amitae or Aunt Julia’s Eulogy before he launched a career in politics.


This is technically the final step in the funerary process and involves a sacrifice. One part is set aside for the dead, another burned and offered to Ceres, the Goddess of Agriculture, and the last piece given to the family to eat. After this the deceased is no longer a part of the living world and instead are a part of the Manes (the appeased spirits of the dead). [4]


A commemoration is a form of ancestor worship. There were days set throughout the year that the people honored their dead. The final step that concluded the mourning of the dead called the novendialis or novemdialis was a funerary feast that took place on the ninth day after the death of the individual. After that, there were specific days throughout the rest of the year where the Romans celebrated the dead. These holidays took place in February which marked the end of the Roman calendar.

Overall the funerary practices of Rome were clearly extensive and much more elaborate than what is practiced by people today. These practices ensured that the dead were not trapped in the land of the living. Due to the wording of the inscription on the gravestone, I think it is safe to say that this woman’s spirit made an easy transition from the living to the Manes.

A short video on Ostia Antica that details death and burial in the Roman city:


((Caitlyn Jones))

Works Cited

  1. Yeomans, Sarah. “City of the Dead.” Archaeology 61, no. 4 (2008): 55-62. http://www.jstor.org/stable/41780388.
  2. “The Roman Funeral.” Ancient History Encyclopedia. Accessed December 06, 2017. https://www.ancient.eu/article/96/the-roman-funeral/.
  3. Favro, Diane, and Christopher Johanson. “Death in Motion: Funeral Processions in the Roman Forum.” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 69, no. 1 (2010): 12-37. doi:10.1525/jsah.2010.69.1.12.
  4. “Ceres.” Ceres, the Goddess of Agriculture. Accessed December 05, 2017. http://www.ceresva.org/Goddess/Ceres.htm.
  5. “Manes.” Merriam-Webster. Accessed December 05, 2017. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/manes.

Additional Reading

LEVISON, JOHN R. “THE ROMAN CHARACTER OF FUNERALS IN THE WRITINGS OF JOSEPHUS.” Journal for the Study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic, and Roman Period 33, no. 3 (2002): 245-77. http://www.jstor.org/stable/24669628.

Feldherr, Andrew. “Non Inter Nota Sepulcra: Catullus 101 and Roman Funerary Ritual.” Classical Antiquity 19, no. 2 (2000): 209-31. doi:10.2307/25011120.

Object: Medicine Bag

Accession Number: NAM-9-1-64

Object: Medicine Bag

Culture/Tribe: Arapaho

Location: Cantonment, Oklahoma

Time: 1960s

Objects shown: Brown leather medicine bag, prescription Pill bottle, ‘Scotch Snuff’ can, ‘Evening in Paris’ cologne bottle, miniature pocket bible, herbal substance wrapped in cloth,  brooch with orange stones, Fifth Corps Military Patch, Fort Sill Centennial Coin, and eyeglasses.

Medicine Bag

contents of a medicine bag believed to belong to Myrtle Lincoln Howlingbuffalo

While organizing drawers in the Ethnology collection, I stumbled upon an old leather medicine bag that was full of random objects. They were fairly modern objects, like a perfume bottle, snuff can, prescription pill bottle, and a war medal. It made no sense to me as to why our museum, which has everything from a 150 million-year-old dinosaur femur to ancient Roman tablets, would have a collection of random objects dating from the 1960s-90s. I noticed a prescription pill bottle with a woman’s name on it: Myrtle Howlingbuffalo. “Oh, this must be all her stuff”, I thought. But who was she? Why would the Sam Noble Museum of Natural History have a bag of seemingly unrelated items from this lady? So, naturally, I googled her. I was surprised by the amount I found. She was born Myrtle Lincoln in 1888 and belonged to the Arapaho tribe. Her mother’s name was Red Feather and father’s name was Bad Man.  Her father served as an Indian Policeman, which made his name ironic. By the age of 13, she was orphaned and spent most of her youth at a boarding school in Cantonment, OK. She married Howard Howling Buffalo and had 7 children.

I didn’t find much else about her adulthood, other than being a Gold Star Mother because she lost a son in WWII. She was interviewed on several occasions by anthropologists who wrote books on Arapaho traditions. My research also led me to several photos of her children, and one photo of her, in the Western History Photo Collection on the OU Campus.

Despite all this, I still hadn’t found a clue as to why we have this particular woman’s belongings.  I pulled the file for the objects and decided to call the woman who had donated them, Julia Jordan.

Julia Jordan worked as an anthropologist for OU on several Native American projects back in the 60s and 70s. She heard of Myrtle Howlingbuffalo while doing fieldwork on the Arapaho and Cheyenne and decided to introduce herself. Julia says she and Myrtle just “hit it off” and they worked together on several projects after that. Myrtle was a “goldmine of information” for her research.  Myrtle spoke fluent Arapaho, was very intelligent, and had a great sense of humor, according to Julia. Julia and Myrtle were quite close, as Julia would often visit Myrtle in Cantonment, Oklahoma. Myrtle was attending a Sun Dance in Wyoming when she suffered a heart attack and passed away at the age of 86. Julia didn’t mention how she came to acquire some of Myrtle’s possessions, but I suspect she had accumulated them during their decade-long friendship.

An anthropologist’s chance introduction to an Arapaho informant turned into a partnership that resulted in several papers and essays about the Arapaho people and culture. Myrtle was an integral piece of the fieldwork being conducted to better understand Native traditions. Her interview transcripts with Julia Jordan can be found online. She is also featured in the book, Wives and Husbands: Gender and Age in Southern Arapaho History by Loretta Fowler.


(( Calen Cline ))

Object: Lion’s Mane Headdress

Object: Lion’s Mane Headdress


Lion’s Mane Headdress




Lion skin and mane, red cotton fabric


E/1975/5/001 Lion Mane Headdress in the Sam Noble Ethnology Collection


This striking artifact comes from Ethiopia. On first glance you might think you are looking at a glamorously highlighted wig. However, looks can be deceiving. This headdress is actually created by using the scalp and mane of a lion. Due to the declining lion population in Ethiopia, headdresses made from lion manes are rarely, if ever, created in modern times. Today, fur from other animals are used, such as horse hair. Headdresses made from animal furs or plant fibers are worn by many Ethiopian ethnic groups. It is possible that this style of ornamentation was inspired by or traded between varying tribes in the region. However, this headdress is likely attributed to the Omoro people, specifically the Shoa Oromo.oromodia

The Omoro is the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia, making up a population of roughly 30 million. This area is largely supported by an agricultural economy with coffee and spices being the largest exported goods. In this regard, many aspects of labor in the region are unchanged from earlier centuries. Unfortunately, the same cannot be said for the cultural integrity of the Oromo people. Between 1870 and 1900, a colonization of the region subjected the Oromo people to cruelty and genocide. These cultural clashes continue in some areas today, where even celebratory gatherings can turn to violence.


Still, despite these struggles the Oromo people have continued to work to protect and preserve cultural traditions. As the tourism industry grows in the area, many Oromo people have found both an economic and cultural outlet by entertaining tourist groups with traditional song, art, and dance. Traditional Ethiopian dance or “eskista” is performed by both men and women. Eskista dancers generally form rows or line up in groups and actively engage everyone in the room with their shoulders shakes and shimmies. Eskista dances can consist of a single dancer or a large group of both men and women together. Traditionally, different kinds of eskistas tell different stories or teach a myriad of life lessons. Each tribal or ethnic group has their own variation of movement and regalia.


A children’s illustration highlights the traditional dance attire worn during the Shoa Omoro dance.

Eskista translates roughly to mean “dancing shoulders” in Amharic. This perfectly describes the traditional dance style of the Shoa Oromo which includes rapid shoulder , head bouncing, and the flipping of hair. Traditionally, the male performers don a lion headdress. Male performers usually wear light colored fabric and carry a stick.  Traditionally, the female performers wear a brown two-piece dress with fringe or shell decoration. While dancing, they use their full-bodied hair to enhance their dance movements.

Check out this Shoa Oromo dance below with a traditionally styled headdress on the male performer. This dance makes me smile!





Sources and Additional Reading








((Christina J. Naruszewicz))

Object: Roman Double-Sided Comb

Accession Number: C/1948/6/001

Object: Double-Sided Comb

Culture: Roman

Date: 30 BC-641

Materials: Boxwood

C_1948_6_001 copy

Figure 1. Roman Comb from the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History. C/1948/6/001.

This week’s object is a double-sided comb from Egypt, near Luxor. Although this artifact was excavated from Egypt, it is identified as Roman due to the Roman occupation of Egypt between 30 BC-641 AD.  This means the age of the comb is somewhere around 1,400-2,000 years old! Although combs of this style are seen through multiple centuries, we can determine that this comb is Roman due to it’s location, approximate age, and the material its carved from: boxwood.

Boxwood is one of many materials used to create double-sided combs. Combs made from ivory or bone are also common. However, boxwood was the cheapest of these and was used almost exclusively to create the Roman army’s standard-issued combs for their soldiers. (1) Three combs made from boxwood uncovered in the “Cave of the Pool”, near the Dead Sea are believed to have come from the early Roman period. (2) These combs bear a striking resemblance in shape, design, and material to the collection’s comb. It’s very possible that the collection’s comb belonged to a soldier in the Roman army.


Figure 2.  Original illustration by Brian Delf.

Now you may be wondering, why did the Roman army issue a double-sided comb to their soldiers as part of their standard gear? The answer has less to do with making sure their soldiers looked their best, and more to do with making sure their soldiers itched a lot less! Living in cramped conditions with your platoon, with few opportunities to bathe or shave, left many of the Roman soldiers susceptible to head lice. The fine toothed side of the comb was meant to catch and remove adult lice and eggs, while the broader toothed comb was meant to tidy the hair and remove tangles.

Unfortunately, Lice have been piggy-backing on humanity’s migration across the world  for thousands of years. In fact, during the excavation of a cave site in Israel, tests performed on hair samples from an individual who died there found remnants of lice and their eggs dating back 9,000 years! (2)


Figure 3.  Double-sided Combs carried on much later than the Roman Period. “Allegory of Vanity” by Jan Miense Molenaer, 1633.

While lice combs have proven to be a tried and true method, more creative remedies have been used. The practice of shaving the head and body hair to prevent infestation was common. This method was popular with the Egyptian elite who used elaborate wigs and powders to stay stylish and louse-free. However, other methods included mixing cresol powder, sulfur, mercury powder, and even kerosene into a salve that would be spread on the hair or body. (2)

While these methods may have offered temporary relief, the results of these caustic concoctions could create more problems than the lice themselves! For this reason the most popular method for lice removal during the last 3,500 years has been maintenance through a fine toothed comb. Many varieties of lice combs can be found throughout the world. In fact, head lice have been so closely tied to our ancestors lives that by the 15th century giving a lice comb was considered to be quite the romantic gift! (3)


Figure 4. 15th Century French Double-Sided Comb. The reverse reads “Pour Bien” meaning ” for your comfort”. This lice comb was probably a gift between sweet hearts.

So next time you have an itch, be thankful you’re not getting a lice comb for Valentines Day!

((Christina J. Naruszewicz))


1- Dowdle, Elizabeth. “Archaeology of Daily Life: Double-sided Comb”, John Hopkins Archaeological Museum, accessed Oct 9, 2017, http://archaeologicalmuseum.jhu.edu/the-collection/object-stories/archaeology-of-daily-life/female-beauty/double-sided-comb

2- Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y., and Gideon Hadas, “Remains in a Louse Comb from the Roman Period Excavated in the Dead Sea Region”, Israel Exploration Journal, Vol. 61, no. 2 (2011), 223-229

3- Morton, Ella. “Some of History’s Most Beautiful Combs Were Made for Lice Removal”, Atlas Obscura, June 21, 2016, accessed Oct 9, 2017. http://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/some-of-historys-most-beautiful-combs-were-made-for-lice-removal


Carved Horn Bugle from the American West


Figure 1. Horn Bugle from the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum Natural History, Ethnology Collection. E/1951/01/036 Photo Taken 2017 by Christina Naruszewicz


Cow Horn Bugle

Texas, United States


Cow Horn, Fabric Strap


This bugle from the collection of the Sam Noble Museum is an intriguing artifact. It has several etched details on its surface. Towards the lip of the bugle is a cross-hatching design which continues for roughly four inches. This is hardly the most exciting aspect of the bugle, however. There are also several drawings of animals, including what appears to be two dogs, an eagle, and a horse with saddle and bridle. A detailed drawing of a rifle or shot gun is also meticulously carved. The most puzzling engraving on the surface of the bugle is a set of initials and a date reading: “FBC January 3, 1890.” Who was FBC and what is the significance of the date? Sadly, it is likely this detail about the horn bugle will remain a mystery. Despite this, we can wonder about the person or persons that handled this object through history and we can play detective about its role in their lives.

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Horn of this type can be used to create a variety of objects, including gun powder containers, combs, and cups. (1) Through a process of boiling or soaking the horn, it can also be softened, and cut into sheets for later use. (2) Bugles or signals made from animal horn are some of the earliest and most commonly created musical instruments. This quick video shows the process of creating a traditional Viking horn bugle that is very similar to the one in the collection.  .

The uses for horn bugles vary from the scared and ceremonial, to the mundane and functional. One example of a ceremonial significant bugle is the Jewish shofar. The shofar is an instrument traditionally made from ram horn. (2) The shofar is blown on special occasions, such as the beginning of the month, and at sacrificial or peace offerings. In the Bible, the shofar is said to have brought down the walls of Jericho.

In medieval Persia, animal horns were also used to create simple trumpets. These often had holes bored into the side, which could produce several musical tones. (3) Examples of similar bugles called the si, can be seen in Sumeria, one the earliest civilizations. Likewise, similar horn instruments were created in India, Greece, Europe, Africa, and elsewhere.


Figure 4. An example of a traditional Jewish Shofar, made from ram horn.

In the American colonies, the horn bugle has a history of being used as a long distance signal for battle or hunting. When a bugle or trumpet of this type is used during a hunt, it acts as a signal to the entire hunting party. It signals when a hunt has ended, or a target (such as a deer) has been located. By 1765 military or musical trumpets made from brass became popular, with many imported from Europe. (4) Due to the popular importation of brass instruments for concerts and military purposes, we can assume that this bugle was not imported. It is likely the Sam Noble’s animal horn bugle was made in Texas, Oklahoma, or another nearby state. Without holes to change it’s pitch, we can also assume this horn was not meant to be an musical instrument. Could the time, location, and the rifle etched on the side of the bugle indicate it was used as a hunting signal? Some of the clues seem to say so! However, this horn could have been made by a pair of idle hands as a toy, or other simple amusement.

Who do you think made the horn trumpet and why?





  1. “On the Employment and Working of Animal Horn”, Scientific American, Jan 26, (1850), 142.
  2. Eugene Walter Nash, “The Euphonium: Its History, Literature and Use in American Schools” (Masters, University of Southern California, 1962), 16.
  3. Nash, “The Euphonium”, 21.
  4. Katheryn Eileen Bridwell-Briner, “The Horn in America from Colonial Society to 1842” (Phd diss., University of North Carolina, 2014), 83.

((Christina Naruszewicz))

Ethnology @ SNOMNH is an experimental weblog for sharing the collections of the Division of Ethnology at the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History.


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