This lion is couchant, or in a reclined position with a raised head, with its mouth open, as if resting and looking down. The mane is raised, but not decorated to show individual hairs. The statuette sits flat and is 1 in. (2.5 cm) high, 2 in. (5.1 cm) long, and .5 in. (1.3 cm) wide.
One ancient story relates the taming of a lion. This story does not involve training a lion; instead an act of kindness makes a lion friendly to humans. Androcles, a slave who ran away to Africa, took a thorn from a lion’s foot. After being captured, Androcles was sent to Rome to be part of a spectacle in the amphitheater where he was to be eaten by a lion. All did not go as planned; the lion refused to eat Androcles, because it was actually the very same lion he had treated in Africa. The Emperor Caligula freed Androcles and the lion, after which Androcles could be seen leading the lion around Rome on a leash. People were amazed by this curiosity and gave Androcles money and scattered flowers over the lion.
Bronze statues and statuettes were a common form of artwork in the Greek and Roman world. Artwork traveled along with the Romans, who spread far into the north, reaching the Netherlands, where bronze lion statuettes have been found. One lion is solid bronze and is shown standing, looking to the right, with its mouth open. This lion is on a hollow terminal and was used as a chariot mounting.
The lion statuette from the Classics Collection was made by casting bronze. Bronze is better than copper for making statues because of its lower melting point. Since the bronze stays liquid longer, it fills a mold better and has superior tensile strength. Cyprus was a major source of copper for the Romans. The copper was mixed with tin to create bronze. Romans imported tin from southwest Turkey, Afghanistan, and England (Cornwall).
Beginning in the late Archaic period (ca. 500-480 B.C.) lost-wax casting of bronze was the most common method of creating these types of bronze figures. There are several methods for lost-wax casting, the earliest of which was the solid lost-wax casting. A solid wax model is made, which is then surrounded with clay and heated so the wax comes out and the clay hardens. Liquid bronze is poured into the hard clay mold. Once the metal hardens, the clay is broken off and the solid bronze statuette is revealed. Bronze cannot be used to make large solid statues, so only small statuettes could be made of solid bronze, like this lion statuette. Lost-wax casting can be used to make hollow statues as well, though the process is slightly different.
Video: To see how lost-wax casting works: