Archive for the 'Clothing' Category

Object: North American Arctic Coast Dolls

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E/1944/01/115

Parka

Inuit

USA: North American Arctic Coast

  1. 1890

Possible Squirrel Fur, Thread, Gingham Fabric Lining

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E/1959/08/053 a-b

Female and Male Doll

Inuit

USA: North American Arctic Coast

  1. 1920s (?)

Dolls: Carved from Wood, Painted Faces.

Clothing: Caribou Skin, Marten Hide, Rabbit Fur, Thread, and Wooden Soled Boots.

Tools: Woven Basket, Wooden Ladle, Wooden Bow & Arrow

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E/1983/02/001

Doll

Alaskan

North American Arctic Coast: Alaskan

1970s

Leather, Possibly Rabbit or Marten Fur, thread, commercial fabric, beads

This week blog post hosts a variety of dolls and doll items from the North American Arctic coast. This collection of objects shows the medley of style, dress, and make of dolls found within Western Alaskan, Inuit, and coastal communities. The dolls span the time period of 1890-1970s and you will see a great diversity in material and style between these little figures. According to the Canadian Museum of History, peoples in the Northern Arctic have practiced the skill of making dolls for over 2,000 years.

 

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An example of a waterproof gut kayak cover and parka. Photo Courtesy of the National Museum of Denmark. Licensed by CC-BY-SA 2.0

 

Inuit hunters sometimes mounted a small doll to the front of their boats to bring them luck. Additionally, the art of making dolls, as well as their miniature clothing and tools served as a valuable lesson in craft production for children. While it was not uncommon for both men and women to sew in these Northern communities, women typically took the role of tanners and seamstresses in the household. For this reason, it is likely that these dolls were made by women. Additionally, young girls were often included in the process of creating dolls and their accompanying garments. This allowed them to practice their skills at sewing by helping with the craft or observing the process.

The materials used to make dolls range from hides such as sealskin, caribou, and furs. However, dolls also include implements like ivory, wood, human hair, sinew, and even intestine and gut. This was far more than child’s play,  learning and mastering the skill of the waterproof seam and stitch was a life-saving skill in more ways than one. In the icy tundra of the far north, staying warm and dry were vital to staying alive. Learning to work with delicate materials such as waterproof intestine to make a parka needed to be practiced.

The “tunnel stitch” is the technique widely used by the Inuit people for example. This stitch ensures a waterproof seal by leaving the outside hide or layer unpunctured. Another innovation in Inuit and artic fashion was the use of waterproof parkas, bags, kayaks and more. In order to sew and wear intestine or gut garments, they must first be oiled or stored in a moist environment. That may seem counter-productive to creating a waterproof garment, but this ensured that the delicate membrane of the gut stayed malleable and would not tear during the production or wear. To see more details about working with gut and intestine to make waterproof clothing, check out this youtube video which details the process of making a Sanightaaq or ceremonial gut parka.

These lessons in tool and clothing production are seen in nearly every doll, despite the wide variety of materials and styles. Each community had a different approach to doll craft. The examples within the Sam Noble utilize a variety of materials common in doll production from as far and wide as North America, Greenland, and the Arctic coast. Dolls crafted in the arctic regions often implemented wood or ivory as the body of their dolls,  as seen in the examples of E/19598/053a-b.  Traditional and realistic clothing, like the parka (E/1944/01/115)  from the collection, would ornament these figures. Whereas the doll from the 1970s (E/1982/02/001) blends traditional and commercial materials.

While the styles, materials, and means of production for doll creation is as diverse as the communities themselves, they all share and pass down important cultural lessons. They instruct on working with a variety of tools and materials such as sinew, gut, thread, fur, hide, and more recently, the use of steel needles and waxed dental floss. Whatever they are made from, however, the dolls also represent a labor of love, each one taking hours to carefully stitch and craft. Whether a child was gifted one of these dolls, or aided in its production, they represent meaningful hours under the careful instruction of a mother, aunt, or grandmother. Ultimately, at their completion, they stand as a thing of beauty and imagination.

 

Sources and Additional Reading:

“Inuit Dolls from Pre-history to Today.” Canadian Museum of History. https://www.historymuseum.ca/cmc/exhibitions/hist/dolls/doinu01e.shtml (Accessed April 17, 2018).

 

“Sewing and Decorating Techniques.” The Bata Shoe Museum http://www.virtualmuseum.ca/edu/ViewLoitLo.do;jsessionid=A3A1C4CF884054AA3EB7386AEE0910BA?method=preview&lang=EN&id=22868  (Accessed April 17th, 2018).

 

Bruchac, Margaret. “Baffin Island Inuit Doll: Dressed to Care.” University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. https://www.penn.museum/blog/museum/baffin-island-inuit-doll-dressed-to-care/ (Accessed April 17th, 2018).

 

((Christina J. Naruszewicz))

Object: Feather Headdress

E/48/8/15
United States of America
1930′-1940s
Materials: Feathers, Leather, Dye, Glass Beads

This feather headdress was worn by one time University of Oklahoma mascot Little Red, who was mascot up until the early 1970s. He was a Native American and would wear tradition tribal dress and an iconic headdress known as a war bonnet. Little Red would perform on the sidelines at football and basketball games, and he would preform war dances when the team would score a touch down.

Little Red became controversial in the minds of many in the 1960s. The ethics of using a Native American as a sports team mascot became a subject of much debate at the University and in the greater Native American community. On the surface, the discussion appeared like it was between Indians and non-Indians, but the truth of the matter was it was far more complicated than that. This debate was centered in the Native community eventually bringing many Native families into odds with each other. Families and friends couldn’t agree on whether or not Little Red was an acceptable depiction of their culture. In the end, Little Red became the first Native American mascot to be removed from a college setting.

In the late 1960s, many groups began to petition for the removal of Little Red. The National Indian Youth Council, claimed that, “Little Red serves as a symbol of the physical oppression and cultural degradation that American Indians had faced in the past.” For all of those fighting against Little Red, there seemed to be just as devoted a crowd fighting for him.

Randy Palmer, in particular, was noted as being particularly invested in saving Little Red. The Daily Oklahoma reported that Palmer went so far as to run on field at the OU – Wisconsin game in September of the 1970 season, and preformed in the capacity of Little Red to an ecstatic crowd even though the mascot had already been banned. The controversy over Little Red is still relevant today. With discussions and disputes over mascots and team names in college and professional athletics taking center stage, it is important to remember all of the cases that have come before. It is important to remember Little Red. If you would like to learn more about some of the debate surrounding the topic of Indian mascots, watch the video below from a panel discussion at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of the American Indian:

Work Cited

DeSpain, Matthew S.
2013  Little Red Died for Your Sins: Playing Indian at the University of Oklahoma and the Rise and Fall of Little Red. Native Matters The Journal of Native American Studies. http://66.147.244.221/~nativema/2013/04/11/50/

[Abbey Take]

Object: Moccasins

E/50/8/8 a-b
Kiowa, Oklahoma
Materials: Native tanned leather, sinew, glass beads, copper tinklers

These moccasins, created from tanned buffalo hide sewn with sinew and decorated with glass beads and metal tinklers were worn by a Kiowa man in the early 20th century. The word moccasin, derived from the Algonquin language, actually comes from the ‘V’ shape of the instep, or the front part of the shoes where the toes would rest. Moccasins come in a variety of shapes, styles, sizes and colors depending on the culture that creates them. The Kiowa, for example, are known for their two-pieced, hard sole moccasins that were decorated with hexagonal and triangular beaded shapes. The Kiowa are also known for their sewing pattern called the “lazy stitch technique.” This technique is done by pushing the needle under the top layer of skin on a hide, but not all the way through, as with many other types of stitches. The Kiowa have a unique style that is portrayed through their material culture.

The Kiowa are a Native American tribe whose roots lie in the great plains. Though the plains are known to have many grasses, the Northern plains environment still contains various flora and sharp rocks that can harm a person’s feet. Hard soled moccasins were created for protection from the environment. The Kiowa are known for their hard sole moccasins, which allowed them able to maneuver in the plains environment with ease. This was especially important during the winter months because the moccasins served as protection from the cold.

Aside from being used for protection the moccasins also held a cultural value. They were worn with traditional dance regalia and used during spiritual ceremonies. The Sun Dance was among the many ceremonials  where traditional dress was worn. Today, the Kiowa continue to ritualize dancing within their community. The Gourd Dance and the Black Leggings Society dances are performed every year by members of the tribe. Watch the video below to see a Kiowa War Dance song.

Work Cited

Native American Languages.
Native American Indian Moccasins. http://www.native-languages.org/moccasins.htm

Open Inquiry Archive.
What Makes These Things Kiowa?. http://openinquiryarchive.net/2012/05/29/what-makes-these-things-kiowa/

Prindle, Tara.
Native American Clothing: Overview of the Moccasin. http://www.nativetech.org/clothing/moccasin/moctext.html

Texas Behind History.
The Kiowa. http://www.texasbeyondhistory.net/plateaus/peoples/kiowa.html.

[Alyxandra Stanco]

Object: Infant Moccasins

E2010.31 a-b
Plains Region, United States of America
ca. 1935
Tanned hide glass beads, sinew
Gift of Lazona Cochnauer Health

Moccasins like these are known as a hard-soled type. These particular moccasins are made from two different pieces of hide. The rawhide sole is stitched to the soft, tanned hide body with sinew. Hard-soled moccasins were common among many Plains Indian tribes in the early 20th century. These tribes were known as bison hunters, who followed the bison herds across the North American continent. Since the Plains Indians from this period were a mobile group of people they needed footwear that could withstand rough or rocky terrain.

The type of beadwork on these moccasins became widespread after European contact. The European soldiers brought with them glass bead and would trade with Native communities. The introduction of glass beads to Plains Indian tribes sparked a revolution in the decorative treatment of garments. Before the availability of glass beads, Plains women would decorate their clothes with paint, shells, and flattened quills. It was a lot of work to make beads out of shell or to flatten porcupine quills.  With the introduction of glass beads, Plains women could make more extensive designs. The small glass beads are available in a variety of colors.

Plains Indian beading is a fashion trend that is still alive and prospering today. Both men and women participate in the craft. Moccasins along with other beaded works of art continue to be made by Native artists throughout North America.

Check out this video about Greg Bellanger a contemporary Ojibwe beadworker from Minnesota.

Work Cited

Hämäläinen, Pekka
2011  Hunting. in Encyclopedia of the Great Plains. eds. David J. Wishart.
http://plainshumanities.unl.edu/encyclopedia/doc/egp.na.040

Kansas Historical Society
1993  Native American Beadwork. in Kansapedia. http://www.kshs.org/kansapedia/native-
american-beadwork/17880

Merriam-Webster
2014  Rawhide. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/rawhide

2014 Sinew. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/sinew

Prindle, Tara
1994  Native American Clothing, Overview of Footwear; Moccasins. in NativeTech: Native
American Technology and Art. http://www.nativetech.org/clothing/moccasin/moctext.html

[Madison Ennenga]

Object: Fencing Mask

E/1949/2/7
Fencing Mask
Japan
1650-1700
Painted metal, Cotton, Leather

This mask is an example of a typical Japanese fencing mask. It is made of a blue cotton head piece that has been padded to help the wearer shrug off blows from a bamboo sword. The face of the mask is trimmed in leather to provide stability. The red painted metal bars serve the dual function of protecting the face and as a marker to the opponent in the match; indicating a no strike zone.

The mask is the traditional mask worn in the Japanese sport of Kendo. The literal translation of Kendo is “Way of the Sword.” It was originally a way for Japanese warriors to train for combat without having to worry about severe injury, though one can still leave a bruise. Not only was the warrior protected from severe injury, but a priceless sword handed down through generations was also carefully guarded. Kendo is the more modern ritualized version of Japanese fencing, though it is not a solitary sport in Japan when it comes to the sword arts, which are taught to people of all ages. Two other Japanese sword arts include;  Bujutsu, which is an attempt to train individuals in traditional Japanese military skills and Iaido, which focuses on the technique and esthetic of drawing the sword. It is important to note Kendo is not Bushido, which is the way of the samurai. Kendo may have developed out of this tradition, but it has rules associated with it that combat did not.

Kendo is not just a physical sport, but also demands great mental work. When practiced properly Kendo becomes a Do; this is a path or way that can lead an individual to self-cultivation. This in turn means Kendo can lead a person to learning about him or herself, both physically and mentally.

Figure 3      Diagram of Kendo Uniform

Figure 3 Diagram of Kendo Uniform

One of the key components of Kendo is the uniform that is worn by all who practice it while in the Dojo, the hall where Kendo is practiced.  The uniform consists of a pleated split skirt called a bakam, and a heavy cotton top called a keikogi. By wearing this uniform, the students of Kendo link their modern training with the ancient tradition of Japanese martial arts. The uniform is usually dark blue or black in color which is associated with the samurai’s traditional role as a representative of social order. What this means is that samurai were a respected social class in Feudal Japan and as such were seen as a policing force just by being present and inspiring others to live by their example. Worn over the general uniform is the armor each student and master will wear to further protect themselves in bouts. The first piece of armor is the tare, which is tied around the waist as a hip protector. Next the do is put on to serve as the chest protector. The student then moves to protect the head with the hachimaki, a towel like cloth, which is also used to keep sweat out of the eyes. The second to last piece is the men, which is the face mask, an example of which is housed in the Ethnology Collection. The last piece is the kote, which are arm guards as well as hand guards.

Take a look at this video to learn more about Kendo:

Sources:

Donohue, John J.

1999  Complete Kendo. Boston: Charles E. Tuttle, Inc.

Sasamori, Junzo and Warner, Gordon

1964  This is Kendo: The Art of Japanese Fencing. Boston: Charles E. Tuttle, Inc.

[Dakota Stevens]

Object: Moccasin Boots

E/2006/1/2
Moccasin boots
Native American: Crow
United States: Montana
Ca. Late 1800’s or early 1900’s
Leather, sinew and glass beads

These Crow moccasin boots (each 12” H x 9.75” L x 3.25” W) are made of tanned bison skin and have a dark brown rawhide sole that is attached without a welt (a long, thin piece of leather that is normally included in moccasins to reinforce the seams). The top of the foot section on each boot is decorated with brightly colored beadwork in the form of an orange flower while similar orange and light blue beaded flowers appear on the upper portion of the boots. There are leather “laces” on each boot at the top of the foot and then around the upper section of the boot near the shin.

The word “moccasin” comes from an Algonquian word. It became the popular word to use for this type of footwear because the Algonquians were the first Native Americans encountered by Europeans, but each tribe has its own native word for their footwear. For instance, the word for                                                                     “moccasin” in Crow is “Huuptaheele.”

The Crow are a wide-spread people who originally lived on the Great Plains in what is now Montana and Wyoming. Most Crow today still live in Montana.

Native-made moccasins and boots vary dramatically from tribe to tribe in their style, decoration, materials, and methods of manufacture. These moccasin boots were likely made for a Crow woman to be worn along with a traditional buckskin dance dress outfit. This type of outfit consists of a partially beaded skirt, a top with little to no beading, high-top moccasin boots, a beaded purse, a dance shawl, and a feather dance fan. The dancers also often wear chokers, beaded hair ties, fur hair extensions, and other accessories.

Moccasin boots such as these can take a long time to make depending on the moccasin pattern and how complicated the designs are. Moccasins are always made of tanned leather and then decorated in a variety of ways. Each tribe has their own unique style of decoration, and you can often determine a person’s tribal affinity based solely on these designs. Any beadwork and other additional decoration are always sewn onto the leather with sinew before the moccasin is sewn together. All moccasins are actually sewn together inside out and then carefully turned right side out in order to add the finishing touches.

Take a look at this fascinating video about how to make moccasins:

[Stephanie Lynn Allen]

Object: Shirt

E/1995/1/24
Shirt or Huipil
Chuj Maya
Guatemala
ca. 1945
Materials: Cotton

This shirt, or huipil, from the Sam Noble Museum collection was made by an unknown member of the Chuj Maya community of Guatemala. Chuj is a language belonging to Q’anjobalan-Chujean family of Mayan languages. There are five branches in the Mayan language family, namely, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Huastecan, Q’anjobalan-Chujean, Quichean-Mamean, and Yucatecan. The Chuj language is spoken by many people in Guatemala and Mexico today. In Guatemala, most Chuj live in the department of Huehuetenango. Huehuetenango is one of Guatemala’s largest departments and is located along the Sierra de Los Cuchamatanes mountain range. This shirt is believed to have come from San Mateo Ixtatá, one of the two main Chuj communities in the region.

The huipil is a traditional Mayan garment, usually made of one or two pieces of hand woven cloth that is heavily decorated with embroidery around the neck. The designs used on huipiles are usually specific to the maker’s community and combine elements of Precolumbian and European styles. The influence of modern western-style clothing on traditional Mayan garments can be seen in this huipil’s fabric. Rather than being woven on a traditional backstrap or treadle loom, the fabric for this shirt is commercially produced muslin.

The following video shows a woman using a traditional backstrap loom.

[Kathryn S. (Barr) McCloud]


Ethnology @ SNOMNH is an experimental weblog for sharing the collections of the Division of Ethnology at the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History.

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