Archive for the 'entertainment' Category

Object: Ceramic Bird House

Figure 1 Ceramic bird house from the Ethnology Collection of the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History

Figure 1 Ceramic bird house from the Ethnology Collection of the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History

E/2003/13/1
Catawaba Valley
North Carolina
Catawba Valley pottery tradition, North Carolina
Material: Unglazed ceramic

This ceramic bird house was made by Burlon B. Craig (1914-2002) in 1987. Craig was famous as a potter in the Catawba Valley tradition of rural Lincoln and Catawba Counties in western North Carolina. He began training as a potter under his neighbor Jim Lynn at the age of fourteen. He also learned from local potters Enoch and Harvey Reinhardt as well as from master potter Ernest Auburn Hilton. Craig served in the Navy during World War II and worked in a furniture factory upon his return, making pottery on the side. By the late 1950’s, he was the only traditional potter left in the Catawba Valley area.

Craig primarily made utilitarian wares until academic and collector interest in folk art arose in the 1970’s. Gaining national attention for his work, he transitioned to more decorative pieces. The worth placed on Catawba Valley pottery rose dramatically. Craig gained apprentices such as Charlie Lisk (b.1952) and Kim Ellington (b.1954), who in turn have passed down the Catawba pottery tradition to others. The tradition is once again vibrant in the area, with a network of potters who host kiln openings, participate in local arts festivals, and continue to teach others the craft.

The Catawba Valley tradition itself entails hand-digging clay from Catawba Valley sources, creating traditional vessel forms, using an alkaline glaze, and firing the vessels in a wood-fueled groundhog kiln. The first potters in the area used a lead-based glaze in the late 18th century but switched to an alkaline glaze, first created in the Edgefield District of South Carolina, around 1830. Craig’s line of tradition can be traced directly back to one of the early potters active in the Catawba Valley, Daniel Seagle (1805-1867). Historically, Catawba Valley ceramic forms have been utilitarian with only some decoration. The decoration varied from melted glass in the glaze to, later, swirls made from different colored clays. The face jugs and other decorated vessels now so popular with collectors were only created beginning in the 20th century, specifically to sell to tourists and others who see the pottery as art rather than as functional pieces.

Figure 2 An example of an alkaline-glazed face jug, created by Charlie Lisk; "Lisk facejug" by Dfuse180 - Own work. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lisk_facejug.jpg#/media/File:Lisk_facejug.jpg

Figure 2 An example of an alkaline-glazed face jug, created by Charlie Lisk; “Lisk facejug” by Dfuse180 – Own work. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lisk_facejug.jpg#/media/File:Lisk_facejug.jpg

 

The video below provides a demonstration of the Catawba Valley technique of throwing a pot given by Mike Ball, who apprenticed under Kim Ellington.

[Susanna Pyatt]

 

References:

Betts, Leonidas

1994    Burlon Craig: An Open Window into the Past, April 15, 1994 – July 8, 1994.

Visual Arts Center, North Carolina State University.

Harpe, Jason and Brian Dedmond

2012    Valley Ablaze: Pottery Tradition in the Catawba Valley. Conover, NC: Lincoln

County Historical Association by Goosepen Studio & Press.

Zug, Charles G. III

1986    Turners & Burners: The Folk Potters of North Carolina. Chapel Hill: University

of North Carolina Press.

Object: Sarangi

E_1954_9_3

E/1954/9/3 a-b
Sarangi musical instrument
Hindu
Asia: India
Early 20th Century
Materials: wood, metal, leather, sinew

This sarangi is a 26-stringed musical instrument made of dark stained cedar wood with a long wide neck and a short wide body. It has a white leather sounding platform and metal and gut strings. It is meant to be played with the accompanying bow, and it traditionally was used in Hindu classical music. This instrument has multiple internal chambers, typically 3-4 hollow chambers that help perpetuate the sound.

Musical tradition is very important in India. Children can learn musical tradition from a young age, becoming an apprentice to a master player. These musicians are respected in the broad public community as well as the religious sector.

The sarangi has been in India for as long as musical traditions have been present in the region. The instrument has deep-rooted cultural and religious significance. For instance, the sarangi is valuable to the Indian tradition of meditation, as its sound induces human concentration and religious thought. Vocal harmonies are extremely important in Hindu prayer in some regions of India, and the sound produced by the sarangi complements the human voice during religious performances, creating a more complete sound of praise.

While it is possible to make a sarangi out of gourds, the stringed instrument is traditionally crafted from cedar wood. The sarangi is analogous to the Western violin, as it is also a stringed and bowed instrument. One of the biggest and most obvious differences between the sarangi and the Western violin are the numbers of strings. The Indian sarangi usually contains thirty five to thirty seven strings (even though the example from the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History only has 26 strings) while the Western Classical violin contains only four strings. This instrument can be played standing up, but traditionally, the sarangi is played while sitting down on the ground cross-legged.

To learn more about the sarangi, take a look at this interesting video:

[Brady Leach]

References:

The Indian Sarangi: Sound of Affect, Site of Contest, Regula Burckhart Qureshi Yearbook for Traditional Music, Vol. 29 (1997), pp. 1-38

Napier, John. “The Distribution Of Authority In The Performance Of North Indian Vocal Music.” Ethnomusicology Forum 16.2 (2007): 271-301. Music Index.

 

Object: Feather Headdress

E/48/8/15
United States of America
1930′-1940s
Materials: Feathers, Leather, Dye, Glass Beads

This feather headdress was worn by one time University of Oklahoma mascot Little Red, who was mascot up until the early 1970s. He was a Native American and would wear tradition tribal dress and an iconic headdress known as a war bonnet. Little Red would perform on the sidelines at football and basketball games, and he would preform war dances when the team would score a touch down.

Little Red became controversial in the minds of many in the 1960s. The ethics of using a Native American as a sports team mascot became a subject of much debate at the University and in the greater Native American community. On the surface, the discussion appeared like it was between Indians and non-Indians, but the truth of the matter was it was far more complicated than that. This debate was centered in the Native community eventually bringing many Native families into odds with each other. Families and friends couldn’t agree on whether or not Little Red was an acceptable depiction of their culture. In the end, Little Red became the first Native American mascot to be removed from a college setting.

In the late 1960s, many groups began to petition for the removal of Little Red. The National Indian Youth Council, claimed that, “Little Red serves as a symbol of the physical oppression and cultural degradation that American Indians had faced in the past.” For all of those fighting against Little Red, there seemed to be just as devoted a crowd fighting for him.

Randy Palmer, in particular, was noted as being particularly invested in saving Little Red. The Daily Oklahoma reported that Palmer went so far as to run on field at the OU – Wisconsin game in September of the 1970 season, and preformed in the capacity of Little Red to an ecstatic crowd even though the mascot had already been banned. The controversy over Little Red is still relevant today. With discussions and disputes over mascots and team names in college and professional athletics taking center stage, it is important to remember all of the cases that have come before. It is important to remember Little Red. If you would like to learn more about some of the debate surrounding the topic of Indian mascots, watch the video below from a panel discussion at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of the American Indian:

Work Cited

DeSpain, Matthew S.
2013  Little Red Died for Your Sins: Playing Indian at the University of Oklahoma and the Rise and Fall of Little Red. Native Matters The Journal of Native American Studies. http://66.147.244.221/~nativema/2013/04/11/50/

[Abbey Take]

Object: ‘Uli ‘Uli (Gourd Rattle)

E/1944/1/170
Hawaii, United States of America
Materials: Gourd, Feathers, Plant Material

An‘Uli ‘Uli is made from either a hollowed and dried gourd, or from a coconut shell and features colorful feathers on the handle.  Gourd rattles like these are made by people who used them for Hula ceremonies and performances.  The Hula is a highly regarded part of Hawai’ian culture and life; Hula creates continuity for history and tradition.  After American colonization of the Hawai’ian islands, leadership positions began to resemble kings’ courts of Europe, and Hulas were a way to showcase prestige.  Kings and Queens, such as King Kamehameha and Queen Liliuokalani, would hire groups from Halau Hulas, or Hula Schools, from surrounding communities to perform for the courts.

A mele, or chant, is a very important part of the Hula tradition, but an equally significant part is the movements of the body and hand gestures during the song.  Each hand gesture and hip sway contributes meaning to the song and helps in the process of transmitting a story.  Some mele’s are about the reign of kings and queens throughout time, some are about cultural history. Topics include how Hawai’ians came to occupy the islands and gods and goddess, such as Pele, the goddess of fire and volcanoes.

There are several other implements used to enhance the sound of a mele, including the Ili ‘Ili, the Puili, and the Kala’au. In the past, these implements were all found or made by hand by the person who would be performing with it. Today there is a market for these types of items as souvenirs for tourists, or for amateur and journeyman level performances.

A modern revival of the Hula tradition began in the 1960s.  This renaissance of Hawai’ian culture has helped tourism commerce.  A festival celebrating the Hula tradition called Merrie Monarch Festival is held each year in Hilo, Hawai’i.  The Merrie Monarch Festival was a way to bring Hawai’ians together, and also served as a way to promote tourism.  Today, Halau Hula groups travel from as far as Japan and California to compete and to share.  There have been many successful attempts at creating continuity of the Hawai’ian culture beyond the islands, as we hear in this NPR interview. Here is a link to the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum’s Ethnology Database, which is located in Honolulu, HI. It has a broad and expanding collection of all things Hawai’ian and Hula related.Check out this video which exemplifies the use of the ‘uli ‘uli in a ‘Wahine Kahiko’ or Womens’ Traditional Style Hula:

Work Cited

Architect of the Capital.
2014  Explore Capital Hill: Kamehameha i. http://www.aoc.gov/capitol-hill/national-statuary-hall-collection/kamehameha-i

My Hero.
2010  Women Heros: Liliuokalani. http://www.myhero.com/go/hero.asp?hero=Liliuokalani_dnhs_US_2010

National Public Radio
2003  All Things Considered. http://www.npr.org/player/v2/mediaPlayer.html?action=1&t=1&islist=false&id=1386115&m=1386116

[Emily McKenzi]

Object: Stickball Sticks, and Balls

E/1947/3/2 a-c
Cherokee, Oklahoma
ca. 1940’s
Materials: Wood, rawhide, black thread, cloth, cotton

E/1959/7/12
Creek, Oklahoma
ca. 1940’s
Materials: Wood, rawhide

Ball sticks are used to play a Native American sport called stickball. Many tribes originally from the southeastern United States still play the two stick version of stickball including the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Seminole, and Yuchi. The manner in which points are earned varies depending on the tribe. Some versions involve a pole with a figure, sometimes a fish or a skull, at the top of the pole and points can be earned by hitting this figure. Other versions of the game allow differing amounts of points to be earned depending how high up the ball makes contact with the pole.

Stickball is much more than a pastime for Native Americans. Many tribes will play stickball preceding and on the same grounds they use to stomp dance, an activity that holds great religious and social meaning. There are two main variations of the game: one which is played exclusively by men and one which is played by both men and women. The game  played exclusively by men was used in the past to settle disputes between tribes, giving it the name “Little Brother of War”. The amount of players allowed to participate ranged from twenty to as many as three hundred with the playing field changing size accordingly. Though these games could result in serious injury and even multiple players’ deaths, it was preferred to the casualties that would have resulted from warfare. Once one side won there was no dispute or retaliation by the other side because of the respect this game commanded.

The other version of stickball involves women and men. The men use these sticks and the women use their hands. Men are not allowed to touch the women, but the women can use whatever means available to score a goal. These sticks are usually made out of hickory wood and are soaked in hot water before shaped and tied with rawhide that is also used for the netting. Women are not allowed to touch the sticks that men use in the version played exclusively by men against men. The balls are made out of many different materials. At the center of the ball is a hard object, sometimes a hickory nut, piece of wood, or rock that is then padded with deer hair and covered with rawhide. To learn more about stickball check out this video.

Work cited

Cherokee Nation.
2014 Cherokee Stomp Dance. http://www.cherokee.org/AboutTheNation/Culture/General/CherokeeStompDance.aspx

2014 Stickball(a ne jo di). http://www.cherokee.org/AboutTheNation/Culture/General/Stickball(anejodi).aspx

Choctaw Nation Cultural Services.
2013  Stickball Team – Tvshka Homma. http://www.choctawnationculture.com/cultural-events/stickball-team.aspx

Holmes, Baxter.
2011  Choctaw Stickball: A Fierce, Ancient Game Deep in Mississippi. Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/2011/oct/18/nation/la-na-choctaw-stickball-20111019

Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians.
2011  Choctaw Stickball. http://www.choctaw.org/culture/stickball.html

UGA Toli Team.
2004  Variations of Stickball. http://toli.uga.edu/information/variations.html

[Mary Williams]

Object: Pueblo Drum

E/1975/2/22
Cochiti Pueblo, New Mexico, United States of America
Date: early 1900s
Materials: cottonwood, rawhide, pigment

This object is a drum that was crafted in a Pueblo community sometime around the beginning of the 20th century. The Pueblo people represent a long tradition of indigenous presence in the Southwestern area of the United States. This drum has strong resemblance to those built by the Cochiti Pueblo community in New Mexico, as pictured on their official seal. Similar drums can be found in the collections of other museums like the NMAI Smithsonian and the University of South Dakota National Music Museum.

Pueblo drums come in many shapes and sizes, from small hand drums to enormous floor drums. Pueblo drums are crafted by hand, giving each drum a unique form and sound. This double-headed drum is of a medium size and can be held by a rawhide cord handle near the top of the drum’s body. This drum is crafted from a hollowed log of soft wood, most likely cottonwood or aspen. Hide, typically from deer, bison, or cow, is processed into rawhide for the drumheads. The animal hide is soaked, stretched, and cut to fit tightly over the ends of the hollowed base. Holes are punched into the edges of the hide and rawhide cord connects the two heads. Pigments are often added to the body of the drum and the colors are symbolic, typically representing a force of nature.

The Southwest has a long-standing history of embracing the significance of rhythm. Song and dance, like the Cochiti Eagle Dance, are culturally monumental to the Pueblo community. The beat of the drum, which gives cadence to dancers, is symbolic of the heartbeat of Mother Earth. Drumbeats can be attributed to having healing powers, as they represent a unity between man and nature. Check out this video about Native American Drumming from the National Museum of the American Indian.

Work Cited

Indian Pueblo Cultural Center.
2007  Cochiti Pueblo. http://www.indianpueblo.org/19pueblos/cochiti.html

Love To Know Corp.
2012  Aspen Trees. http://www.2020site.org/trees/aspen.html

Mason, Jim.
N.D.  Cottonwood. Great Plains Nature Center. http://www.gpnc.org/cottonwood.htm

Mckosato, Harlan.
2007  Drums: Heartbeat of Mother Earth. Native: Native Peoples Magazine. http://www.nativepeoples.com/Native-Peoples/July-August-2009/Drums-Heartbeat-of-Mother-Earth/

Montana Arts Council.
N.D. Indian Rawhide Drum Making. http://art.mt.gov/folklife/folklife_drum.asp

National Music Museum.
2007  Ceremony Drum, Pueblo Nation, Arizona, 19th-early 20th century. http://orgs.usd.edu/nmm/AmericanIndigenous/879/CeremonyDrum879.html

National Museum of the American Indian.
2014  Drum and Drum Stick.   http://www.nmai.si.edu/searchcollections/item.aspxirn=64872&catids=0&%09cultxt=pueblo%20&objtypetxt=drum&src=1-5

Prindle, Tara.
1994  Cordage Technology. NativeTech Native American Cordage. http://www.nativetech.org/cordage/

Pueblo de Cochiti.
2003  Visitors Guide. http://www.pueblodecochiti.org/guide.html

[Cameron Benton]

Object: Hand Game Set

E/2009/2/1 a-tt
Hand game set
Kiowa
Carnegie, OK
Ca. 2009
Materials: Painted wood and plastic pegs

This object is a Kiowa hand game set. The set consists of a rectangular painted wooden base (27.5” long by 8.5” high by 5” wide), 37 painted wooden rods that fit into holes along the top of the base (each rod is 12” long and 3/8” in diameter), and 8 pegs made of white plastic that fit into holes along the sides of the base (each peg is 4” long by 3/8” in diameter). Eighteen of the rods are on the left side and are painted dark blue with small white dots all over. Another 18 rods are placed on the right side and are painted in a mottled red and yellow design. There is a single central rod, painted blue with white dots on one end and mottled red and yellow on the other. Half of the pegs are decorated with 3 bands of color while the other half of the pegs are plain. Two decorated and two undecorated pegs are on each side of the base. The base is painted red with a mountain landscape outlined in yellow. Above the mountains, the rest of the base is painted dark blue with small white dots, possibly representing stars.  There is a yellow, red, and blue maple leaf emblem on the top center of the base.

The hand game, common to at least 81 different Native American tribes in North America, is a game of chance. Men, women, and children of all ages play this game. The game can vary in size size, from only a handful of people to around 50 people! Hand games go by many different names amongst the various tribes, including “stick games” or “hands and bones,” but all of them involve guessing in which hand an object, or series of objects, is hidden. This type of game is very old. In fact, Lewis and Clark mentioned this game in their records of meeting with the Nez Perce Indians of Idaho in the early 1800’s.

Generally, a bone, wooden, or plastic bead at least 2 inches long is the object being hidden. In many cases, there are multiple beads (usually two or four). There are always two teams that sit in rows across from each other. A scorekeeper and the musicians usually sit to one side. The game starts by drawing lots to see which team will get to have the bead (or beads) “in hand.” This means that they are the ones in possession of the bead and are responsible for hiding it. The players on the opposite side, who are to guess who is hiding the bead, must watch closely to keep track of where the players are trying to pass the bead from one hand to the other and from one person to another without exposing the bead to view. Each player in the row that has the bead “in hand” act as if they, specifically, are the one to have the bead in order to try to fool their opponents. The teams actively cheer on their own side while trying to distract the opposing team with songs and dances. Every time the opposing side correctly guesses where the bead is, they win a point. The side guessing continues to guess until they miss; then they switch and the other team guesses. The 30 (or more) counting sticks, sometimes referred to as arrows, are used to keep score. The first team to 10 points wins!

Take a look at this video to see a contemporary hand game from Oklahoma:

[Stephanie Lynn Allen]


Ethnology @ SNOMNH is an experimental weblog for sharing the collections of the Division of Ethnology at the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History.

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